(Liquid Flow Through Concrete)
Permeability of Crystal Lok® Treated Structural Concrete is Zero.
See Testing Report
Crystal Lok® Concrete Treatment penetrates new and aged concrete structures; internally integrates chemically reactive components with the unique characteristics both of waterproofing and of dampproofing. Portland cement creates the strength of concrete as calcium silicate hydroxide (C-S-H), with a residual Portland cement product portlandite, Ca(OH2). Crystal Lok® integrates chemically with residual Portland cement - portlandite Ca(OH2) - creating impermeable C-S-H, stopping most liquid penetration, resistant to chemicals and increase durability. Crystal Lok® leaves no surface film and creates no environmentally hazardous structures internally.
Ca (OH)2 + Crystal Lok® = C-S-H + free Na or NaOH
* C-S-H + CH + Ettringite as it fills pores, capillaries & voids in concrete mass
1) Waterproofing = Zero Permeability of liquid molecules Crystal Lok® creates internal hydrophobic blocking actions to waterproof concrete structures, preventing the passage of liquids including water under hydrostatic pressure. Crystal Lok® creates zero liquid permeability when applied onto either face of the structure. Watertight concrete is achieved in all permeability tests of Crystal Lok® applied at the recommended rate of 300 square feet per gallon, through 400 hours of continuous pressure testing.
2) Dampproofing = 47% reduction of Water Vapor Emissions Crystal Lok® provides dampproofing of concrete structures, retarding water vapor emissions but allowing sufficient breathing of trapped liquids in the form of vapor from the concrete mass. Dampproofing alone has limited effectiveness if there is a likelihood that the treated concrete may later develop cracks or the concrete is immersed or subjected to rain, to a head of water or penetration by other liquids "Most dampproofing admixtures are ineffective in reducing water passage under a positive hydrostatic head..”* See Ramachandran text "Dampproofing and Waterproofing Admixtures" Crystal Lok® distinguishes itself by integrating both waterproofing and dampproofing into treated concrete in a single application.
Permeability / Hydrostatic Pressure Resistance Tests Established Waterproof through 400 hours of continuous pressure tests and confirms the hydrophobic blocking characteristics of Crystal Lok® Concrete Treatment
• Conpro Co., 1988 tests, established 45 psi with no leakage of Crystal Lok® on 3 ASTM specified concrete samples, to the limit of their apparatus.
• Pacific Testing Laboratory, Seattle, 1996: Permeability tests conducted by Kingsley Drake Associates, Materials Engineer. It confirmed and extended the 1988 testing by Conpro Company. Pacific Testing Laboratory confirmed at least 73 psi with no leakage. Permeability tests were performed on an ASTM specification 6 inch diameter concrete test core, cut to 1 inch thick samples. The three one inch thick samples were saturated in water for one week in order to test on fully absorbed concrete.
1. Control test - failure of each sample The 3 fully water-saturated, untreated ASTM structural concrete samples failed at normal 10 foot depth ground water pressure. After Control testing Crystal Lok® was applied onto one face of the saturated sample at the recommended rate of 300 sq ft per gallon.
2. Positive face tests - no leakage Continuous pressure applied onto water-saturated, Crystal Lok® treated faces of the 3 ASTM samples proved to 73 psi with zero permeability at all pressures, at least to a 173 foot column of continuous water pressure
3. Negative face tests = no leakage The 3 samples were reversed and continuous water pressure applied to the negative, untreated face resulting in no failure at least to a 135 foot column of water pressure. Pacific Testing Laboratory tests of Crystal Lok® were terminated at 400 hours with no failures.
Resort swimming pool. treated with Crystal Lok® on all surfaces.